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11th Annual Congress on Pulmonology & Respiratory Medicine, will be organized around the theme “Revolutionizing Respiratory Care: Breath Well, Live Healthier”
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Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a constant incendiary lung illness that causes discouraged wind stream from the lungs. Side effects incorporate breathing trouble, hack, bodily fluid creation and wheezing. It's brought about by long haul introduction to disturbing gases or particulate issue, frequently from tobacco smoke. Individuals with COPD are at expanded danger of creating coronary illness, lung malignancy and an assortment of different conditions. The top reason for COPD is tobacco smoking. Long haul introduction to synthetic aggravations can likewise prompt COPD. It's a sickness that generally sets aside a long effort to create
Diagnosis usually involves imaging tests, blood tests, and lung function tests. There's no solution for COPD, yet treatment can help ease manifestations, bring down the opportunity of intricacies, and for the most part improve personal satisfaction. Meds, supplemental oxygen treatment, and medical procedure are a few types of treatment. Early indications incorporate into COPD are incidental brevity of breath, particularly after exercise, mellow however repetitive hack and expecting to make a sound as if to speak regularly, particularly before anything else
- Track 1-1Diagnosing and Treatment for COPD
- Track 1-2Medications for COPD
- Track 1-3Diet recommendations for people with COPD
- Track 1-4Living with COPD
- Track 1-5What is COPD?
- Track 1-6What are the symptoms and causes of COPD?
Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder. It causes breathing to repeatedly stop and start during sleep. There are several types of sleep apnea, but the most common is obstructive sleep apnea. This type of apnea occurs when the throat muscles intermittently relax and block airway during sleep. A noticeable sign of obstructive sleep apnea is snoring.
This occurs when the muscles in the back of throat relax. These muscles support the soft palate, the triangular piece of tissue hanging from the soft palate, the tonsils, the side walls of the throat and the tongue. When the muscles relax, airway narrows or closes as you breathe in. When can't get enough air, which can lower the oxygen level in the blood.
- Track 2-1What are the types of Obstructive Sleep Apnea?
- Track 2-2What Causes Obstructive Sleep Apnea?
- Track 2-3How Is Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosed?
- Track 2-4How Is Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treated?
- Track 2-5What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea?
Pulmonary hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that affects the arteries in lungs and the right side of heart. In one form of pulmonary hypertension, tiny arteries in lungs, called pulmonary arterioles, and capillaries become narrowed, blocked or destroyed. This makes it harder for blood to flow through lungs, and raises pressure within lungs' arteries. As the pressure builds, the heart's lower right chamber (right ventricle) must work harder to pump blood through the lungs, eventually causing heart muscle to weaken and fail
Each form of Pulmonary hypertension is different, so it is important for newly-diagnosed patients to find a Pulmonary hypertension specialist who can accurately find what is causing their Pulmonary hypertension and develop a treatment plan that is right for that specific type of Pulmonary hypertension as soon as possible. Every person with pulmonary hypertension is different, and new research is being conducted every day with the potential to improve the outlook for people living with this disease. Once in the care of a pulmonary hypertension treating health care team and on appropriate therapy, people with pulmonary hypertension can live many years.
- Track 3-1Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
- Track 3-2Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease
- Track 3-3Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Lung Disease
- Track 3-4Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Chronic Blood Clots in the Lungs
- Track 3-5Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Unknown Causes
Tuberculosis is s transferable infection that usually attacks the lungs. It can also spread to other parts of the body, like the brain and spine. A type of bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes it. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It was historically called "consumption" due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms. Tuberculosis is spread through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. Active infection occurs more often in people with HIV/AIDS and in those who smoke. Diagnosis of active TB is based on chest X-rays, as well as microscopic examination and culture of body fluids. Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) or blood tests
Prevention of TB involves screening those at high risk, early detection and treatment of cases, and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Those at high risk include household, workplace, and social contacts of people with active TB. Treatment requires the use of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem with increasing rates of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).
- Track 4-1Symptoms of Tuberculosis
- Track 4-2Causes for Tuberculosis
- Track 4-3Risk factors of Tuberculosis
- Track 4-4Complications of Tuberculosis
- Track 4-5Prevention of Tuberculosis
Lung transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a patient's diseased lungs are partially or totally replaced by lungs which come from a donor. Donor lungs can be retrieved from a living donor or a deceased donor. A living donor can only donate one lung lobe. With some lung diseases, a recipient may only need to receive a single lung. With other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, it is imperative that a recipient receive two lungs. While lung transplants carry certain associated risks, they can also extend life expectancy and enhance the quality of life for end-stage pulmonary patients.
Lung damage can often be treated with medication or with special breathing devices. But when these measures no longer lung function becomes life-threatening, doctor might suggest a single-lung transplant or a double-lung transplant. Some people with coronary artery disease may need a procedure to restore blood flow to a blocked or narrowed artery in the heart, in addition to a lung transplant. In some cases, people with serious heart and lung conditions may need a combined heart-lung transplant
- Track 5-1Types of lung transplant
- Track 5-2Factors that may affect the eligibility for a lung transplant
- Track 5-3Risks factors for Lung transplantation
- Track 5-4Side effects of anti-rejection drugs
- Track 5-5Transplant requirements
Allergic asthma is asthma caused by an allergic reaction. It’s also known as allergy-induced asthma. People with allergic asthma usually start feeling symptoms after inhaling an allergen such as pollen. The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America reports that more than half of people with asthma have allergic asthma. Allergic asthma is treatable in most cases. An allergen is a typically harmless substance such as dust mites, pet dander, pollen or mold. If you are allergic to a substance, this allergen triggers a response starting in the immune system. Through a complex reaction, these allergens then cause the passages in the airways of the lungs to become inflamed and swollen. This results in coughing, wheezing and other asthma symptoms
The same allergens that give some people sneezing fits and watery eyes can cause an asthma attack in others. Allergic asthma is the most common type of asthma. About 90% of kids with childhood asthma have allergies, compared with about 50% of adults with asthma. The symptoms that go along with allergic asthma show up after you breathe things called allergens like pollen, dust mites, or mold. If you have asthma it usually gets worse after you exercise in cold air or after breathing smoke, dust, or fumes. Sometimes even a strong smell can set it off.
- Track 6-1What is allergic asthma?
- Track 6-2What are the causes of allergic asthma?
- Track 6-3What are the symptoms of allergic asthma?
- Track 6-4How is allergic asthma diagnosed?
- Track 6-5What are the treatments for allergic asthma?
- Track 6-6What are the potential complications of allergic asthma?
- Track 6-7What are the potential complications of allergic asthma?
Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium the tissue and space around the alveoli. It concerns alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, and perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. It may occur when an injury to the lungs triggers an abnormal healing response. Ordinarily, the body generates just the right amount of tissue to repair damage, but in interstitial lung disease, the repair process goes awry and the tissue around the air sacs (alveoli) becomes scarred and thickened. This makes it more difficult for oxygen to pass into the bloodstream. The term Interstitial lung disease is used to distinguish these diseases from obstructive airways diseases.
Interstitial lung diseases can be caused by exposure to hazardous chemicals, certain medications and medical treatments. In most cases, the causes are unknown. Lung damage from many ILDs is irreversible and progressive, meaning it gets worse over time. In some cases, it can be slowed by certain medications. Occasionally, people with Interstitial lung disease will be recommended for lung transplants. Prolonged Interstitial lung disease may result in pulmonary fibrosis, but this is not always the case. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is interstitial lung disease for which no obvious cause can be identified and is associated with typical findings both radiographic and pathologic
- Track 7-1What are the causes of interstitial lung disease?
- Track 7-2Diagnosis for Interstitial lung disease
- Track 7-3what are the treatments for interstitial lung disease?
- Track 7-4Risk factors for interstitial lung disease
- Track 7-5Complications for interstitial lung disease
Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia. Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing.
Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Risk factors include cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, and a weak immune system. Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination. Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis. The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia
- Track 8-1Signs and symptoms of Pneumonia
- Track 8-2Cause for Pneumonia
- Track 8-3Risk factors for Pneumonia
- Track 8-4Complications for Pneumonia
- Track 8-5Diagnosis for Pneumonia
- Track 8-6Prevention for Pneumonia
Lung cancer is a condition that causes cells to divide in the lungs uncontrollably. This causes the growth of tumors that reduce a person's ability to breathe. In lung cancer, this pattern of cell overgrowth occurs in the lungs, which are vital organs for breathing and gas exchange. Cigarette smoking is the principal risk factor for development of lung cancer, Passive exposure to tobacco smoke (passive smoking) also can cause lung cancer in non-smokers. The two types of lung cancer, which grow and spread differently, are small-cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Medical professionals also refer to them as small-cell lung carcinoma and non q-small-cell lung carcinoma.
The stage of lung cancer refers to the extent to which the cancer has spread in the body. Treatment of lung cancer can involve a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and radiation therapy as well as newer experimental methods. The general prognosis of lung cancer is poor because doctors tend not to find the disease until it is at an advanced stage. Five-year survival is around 54% for early stage lung cancer patients that have a tumor localized to the lungs, but only around 4% in those with advanced, inoperable lung cancer. Smoking cessation is the most important measure that can prevent the development of lung cancer
- Track 9-1Different types of types of lung cancer
- Track 9-2what are the symptoms of lung cancer?
- Track 9-3Stages of lung cancer
- Track 9-4Risk factors for lung cancer
- Track 9-5Lung cancer and smoking
- Track 9-6Diagnosing and treatment for lung cancer
- Track 9-7Diagnosing and treatment for lung cancer
Respiratory implies the field of drug identifying with lung and respiratory issue. Working with general pediatrics, aspiratory pediatricians treat an extensive variety of pneumonic issue. Respiratory implies the field of solution identifying with lung and respiratory issue. Working with general pediatrics, aspiratory pediatricians treat an extensive variety of pneumonic issue. It incorporates Asthma, Sleep Disorder, Chronic Cough, Exercise initiated Asthma, Congenital Lung Problem and Pediatric Pneumonia.
A great part of the focal point of aspiratory recovery, look into and pneumonic solution goes toward the most youthful individuals from society-the babies. It's inherent however treatable. With a sound aspiratory stenosis finding the heart valve can be supplanted or repaired and kids can develop to lead ordinary solid lives. Rest apnea influences untimely infants. A circumstance called apnea of rashness exists when the tyke doesn't breath for 20 seconds or more. It's a pneumonic illness that can be treated with ventilation machines and medicines.
- Track 10-1Expertise in the full range of pediatric respiratory conditions
- Track 10-2Advanced diagnostic capabilities
- Track 10-3Innovative respiratory disease research
Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is a generic term applied to all sleep apnea treatments that use a stream of compressed air to support the airway during sleep. With PAP therapy, you wear a mask during sleep. A portable machine gently blows pressurized room air from into your upper airway through a tube connected to the mask. This positive airflow helps keep the airway open, preventing the collapse that occurs during apnea, thus allowing normal breathing. For optimal improvement, it's important to use your PAP machine every time you sleep including naps. Overall PAP therapy is a safe and effective treatment; however there are a few counter-indications.
A major determining factor of upper airway patency during sleep is the activity of the genioglossus muscle. Activation of this muscle via stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve is a creative new approach for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Hypoglossal nerve stimulation therapy is commonly referred to as Inspire, a reference to the name of the company Inspire Medical Systems that developed the treatment, which was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014
- Track 11-1Continuous pressure devices
- Track 11-2Automatic positive airway pressure
- Track 11-3Bi-level pressure devices
- Track 11-4Expiratory positive airway pressure devices
- Track 11-5Care and maintenance
- Track 11-6Portability and Availability
Pulmonary rehabilitation, also known as respiratory rehabilitation, is an important part of the management and health maintenance of people with chronic respiratory disease who remain symptomatic or continue to have decreased function despite standard medical treatment. It is defined by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society as an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, and comprehensive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory diseases who are symptomatic and often have decreased daily life activities. In general, pulmonary rehabilitation refers to a series of services that are administered to patients of respiratory disease and their families, typically to attempt to improve the quality of life for the patient.
Pulmonary rehabilitation may be carried out in a variety of settings, depending on the patient's needs, and may or may not include pharmacologic intervention. Pulmonary rehabilitation is generally specific to the individual patient, with the objective of meeting the needs of the patient. It is a broad program and may benefit patients with lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and cystic fibrosis, among others. Although the process is focused on the rehabilitation of the patient him/herself, the family is also involved. The process typically does not begin until a medical exam of the patient has been performed by a licensed physician
- Track 12-1Where Is Pulmonary Rehabilitation Administered?
- Track 12-2Can Use Oxygen during Pulmonary Rehabilitation?
- Track 12-3Can Do Pulmonary Rehabilitation at Home?
- Track 12-4How Much Does Pulmonary Rehabilitation Cost?
Cardiopulmonary disease is the medical term used to describe a range of serious disorders that affect the heart and lungs. The two primary tobacco-related cardiopulmonary diseases are Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD). Exposure to tobacco smoke has long been recognized as a prominent risk factor for CVD. Similarly minimizing exposure to tobacco smoke is the only effective way to prevent COPD. However, the mechanisms by which tobacco toxicants increase the risk of CVD and lead to the onset of COPD are still unclear. Despite reductions in smoking over the past decade, CVD and COPD remain the first and second leading causes of death among smokers. It is important to remember also that for every person who dies because of smoking; at least 30 people live with a serious smoking-related illness.
The emergence of e-cigarettes and other new tobacco products that deliver nicotine aerosolized in various solvents raises new critical questions regarding the potential risk for cardiopulmonary disease among users. The use of these new tobacco products has soared over the last few years, particularly among adolescents, and is expected to overtake the conventional cigarette market within the next decade. These new products deliver nicotine and chemical flavorings aerosolized in a base of propylene glycol and/or glycerin via inhalation.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a type of chronic scarring lung disease characterized by a progressive and irreversible decline in lung function. Symptoms typically include gradual onset of shortness of breath and a dry cough. Other changes may include feeling tired and abnormally large and dome shaped finger and toenails Complications may include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, pneumonia, or pulmonary embolism. The cause is unknown. Risk factors include cigarette smoking, certain viral infections, and a family history of the condition. The underlying mechanism involves scarring of the lungs. Diagnosis requires ruling out other potential causes. It may be supported by a CT scan or lung biopsy which show usual interstitial pneumonia. It is a type of interstitial lung disease.
The cause of Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is unknown but certain environmental factors and exposures have been shown to increase the risk of getting Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Cigarette smoking is the best recognized and most accepted risk factor for Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and increases the risk of Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by about twofold. Other environmental and occupation exposures such as exposure to metal dust, wood dust, coal dust, silica, stone dust, biologic dusts coming from hay dust or mold spores or other agricultural products, and occupations related to farming/livestock have also been shown to increase the risk for Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There is some evidence that viral infections may be associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other fibrotic lung diseas
Occupational lung diseases are occupational, or work-related, lung conditions that have been caused or made by the materials a person is exposed to within the workplace. It includes a broad group of diseases, including occupational asthma, industrial bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and inhalation injury, interstitial lung diseases such as pneumoconiosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung fibrosis, infections, lung cancer and mesothelioma. These diseases can be caused directly or due to immunological response to an exposure to a variety of dusts, chemicals, proteins or organisms
Asbestosis: This condition is caused when a person breathes in tiny asbestos fibers. Over time, this leads to lung scarring and stiff lung tissue. It’s often linked with construction work.
Coal dust: This is caused by inhaling coal dust. It causes lung inflammation and scarring. This can cause long-lasting lung damage and shortness of breath.
Silicosis: This condition is caused by breathing in airborne crystalline silica. This is a dust found in the air of mines, foundries, and blasting operations. It can also increase the risk for other lung diseases.
Byssinosis: This is caused by breathing in dust from hemp, flax, and cotton processing. It is also known as Brown Lung Disease. It causes chest tightness and shortness of breath.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: This is an allergic lung disease. It is caused by a lung inflammation that happens from breathing in many different substances. These include fungus spores, bacteria, animal or plant protein, or certain chemicals. They can come from moldy hay, bird droppings, and other organic dusts. The disease causes inflamed air sacs in the lungs.
Work-related asthma: This is caused by breathing in dusts, gases, fumes, and vapors. It causes asthma symptoms such as a chronic cough and wheezing. This condition can be reversed if found early.
The chest also know as thoracic or pleuralcavity is a space that is enclosed by the spine, ribs, and sternum and is separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm. The chest cavity contains the heart, the thoracic aorta, lungs and oesophagus among other important organs. The wall of the chest cavity is made up of the rib cage and diaphragm. The chest cavity is lined by a thin shiny membrane called the pleura, which covers the inside surface of the rib cage and spreads over the lungs as well. Normally, the pleuron produces a small amount of fluid which serves as a lubricant to the lungs as they move back and forth against the chest wall during respiration.
Hemothorax: Accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity. Caused by Most chest trauma; other causes include pleural cancer and chest/heart surgery. Symptoms include Chest pain, shortness of breath, anxiety/restlessness, increased heart rate, respiratory failure if large
Pleural effusion: Accumulation of excess fluid in the pleural cavity; this accumulation pushes against the lung and prevents full expansion with breathing. This is one of the most common problems associated with the pleura. Caused by Congestive heart failure, lung cancer, pneumonia, tuberculosis, liver disease, pulmonary embolism, lupus, adverse reaction to specific medications. A symptom includes May be asymptomatic or produce shortness of breath and cough
Empyema: The accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity. This is a type of pleural effusion that is usually associated with pneumonia. The symptoms are those of the pneumonia in addition to shortness of breath and impaired breathing.
Pleural tumors: Malignant tumors arising from the pleura or spreading to the pleura from another site, and benign tumors arising from the pleura. Symptoms include Shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, unexpected weight loss
Pleurisy: It is Inflammation of the pleura. Caused by Infection of the respiratory system by a virus or bacteria, leak of air into pleural cavity from a punctured lung, chest injury, tuberculosis or other infection, tumor in the pleural cavity, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, sickle cell crisis, pulmonary embolism, pancreatitis, complications from heart surgery Symptoms include Chest pain on taking a deep breath, shortness of breath, fever and/or chills, joint swelling and/or soreness, unexpected weight loss
Pneumothorax: Accumulation of air within the pleural cavity between the outside of the lung and the inside of the rib cage. Causes: Injury to the lung causing a leak of air, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or other lung disease, tuberculosis, ruptured air blisters, mechanical ventilation Symptoms include Shortness of breath, rapid breathing.
1. Spirometry is a noninvasive test to assess lung function. During the test, you’ll take a deep breath and then blow into a tube connected to the spirometer.
2. Imaging tests include a chest X-ray or CT scan. These images can provide a detailed look at your lungs, blood vessels, and heart.
3. An arterial blood gas test involves taking a blood sample from an artery to measure blood oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other important levels.
Smoking cessation: The most essential step in any treatment plan for COPD is to stop all smoking. It's the only way to keep COPD from getting defective which can eventually reduce ability to breathe.
Bronchodilators: These medications which usually come in an inhaler relax the muscles around airways. This can help relieve coughing and shortness of breath and make breathing easier.
Inhaled steroids: Inhaled corticosteroid medications can reduce airway inflammation and help prevent exacerbations. Side effects may include bruising, oral infections and hoarseness. These medications are useful for people with frequent exacerbations of COPD.
Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors: A new type of medication approved for people with severe COPD and symptoms of chronic bronchitis is roflumilast a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. This drug decreases airway inflammation and relaxes the airways.
Antibiotics: Respiratory infections, such as acute bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza, can aggravate COPD symptoms. Antibiotics help treat acute exacerbations, but they aren't generally recommended for prevention.
Oxygen therapy: There are several devices to deliver oxygen to the lungs, including lightweight, portable units that you can take with you to run errands and get around town. Some people with COPD use oxygen only during activities or while sleeping. Others use oxygen all the time. Oxygen therapy can improve quality of life and is the only COPD therapy proven to extend life
Pulmonary rehabilitation program: These programs generally combine education, exercise training, nutrition advice and counseling. Pulmonary rehabilitation may shorten hospitalizations, increase your ability to participate in everyday activities and improve your quality of life.